For over 120 years, theorists have been aware of heterochronic principles in evolution. Stephen J. Gould has almost single-handedly kept the flame alive. Gould is dead. Evolutionists specializing in this area are relatively rare. As the bonfire of Neo-Darwinism continues to die down, perhaps we’ll see renewed attention offered to these alternative views. Evolutionary developmental biology is opening doors in this direction.

Humans have evolved as a result of neoteny. Neoteny is one of several heterochronic processes. Neoteny is that process by which the features of infants appear over time in the adults of descendants. Physical, behavioral and neurological features “prolong” over generations, manifesting later and later in ontogeny until specific characteristics of embryos, babies and toddlers emerge as full-blown adult characteristics.

Books discussing neoteny in detail, such as Gould’s Ontogeny and Phylogeny, concentrate on the physical features that transform when impacted by neoteny. Wesley Montague explored some of the emotional repercussions of bridging the child to the adult. Specifically, Montague noted the profound effect of carrying creativity and curiosity into the adult of our species, with the resulting societal repercussions.

Two additional features of the very young have been somehow absent from discussions of the influence of neoteny on the human species. Perhaps this absence is because it is mostly males writing on the subject. Maybe it is because these two features are obfuscated by the way we humans view ourselves in contemporary society. Nevertheless, observing closely the behavior and experience of babies, extrapolating these observations to a tentative hypothesis of the behavior and experience of our chimp-like ancestors, we might conclude that contemporary humans and contemporary human society may have no small amount to do with the dynamic of heart-felt affection and dependency.

In other words, the affection experienced by the young for other humans in their life is an integral experience, usually ignored as a governing principle, yet it is an experience having massive impact upon our society. The young feel affection and they experience a compulsion to connect, what we call dependency. Being small is to experience a nonstop attraction to other humans, animals, things and situations while at the same time experiencing the constant buffeting that comes with exposure to the barriers that prevent a reciprocation of that attraction. Human babies and toddlers are extremely dependent relative to the young of other species. As this dependency paradigm manifests in the adult of our species, the relative importance of affection and connection will grow as adults acquire these aspects of the infant.

The massive, multiscale interconnection of contemporary society, with exponential increases in connection characterized by at first email, then the web, then texting and now social networking, are manifestations of infant dependency proclivities prolonging into older states of ontogeny, driving society into a whole.

We are in the midst of as profound an acceleration of our society and our species as can be imagined. Differentiating between societal and biological evolution in humans is no longer possible.

We can understand the neotenous engine behind our biological evolution and observe the manifestations of neoteny in society as earlier and earlier stages of an individual’s ontogeny emerge in adults. We observe biology’s transformations manifest in culture, almost before our eyes. We are left reeling.

We are also left feeling. Affection and dependency are in our societal future and our ontological past. Neoteny is not particularly discriminating in what infant features are carried forward to adulthood. Love is inevitable. So is vulnerability. The future could not be brighter.


This entry was posted on Friday, October 24th, 2008 at 7:51 am and is filed under 10-Most Commented, Biology, Neoteny, Ontogeny, Society, Theory, Web. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
14 Comments so far

  1. Shawn Longino on December 23, 2008 4:05 pm

    Your viewpoint agrees, in many ways, with that of my employer, Walter Goldschmidt, professor emeritus UCLA. His area of study has been on human affection and affect, and his work has many ramifications for social issues, as you have made clear.

    I have barely begun putting together a blog for him, inked via my name; at his age, the internet is a territory he has little curiosity about! If you have comments on our few entries, or ideas of what you would like to see, these opinions would be gratefully recieved.

  2. Andrew on December 23, 2008 5:42 pm

    Regarding Walter Goldschmidt’s Dawkins comments…

    “Dawkins shares the biological determinists’ proclivity to consistently play down human uniqueness; there is a lot talk about maternal sacrifice but not maternal care, about sex but not about love, about progeny but not about babies.”

    Indeed, Dawkins is a story teller wearing a scientists apparel. He tells the story of Social Darwinism dressed up for our times as “free markets”. Only a society so deeply propagandized as our own to believe selfishness is good for all could believe an evolutionary theory grounded in selfishness, a theory disregarding cooperation and all the other scales through which evolution interdependently unfolds.

    I agree, affection lies at the heart of what makes us human. At the same time, our ability to be in two times and places at once provides us access to horrors and the sublime

    Taking our ability to produce stories very seriously, Dawkins is a serious mistake.

  3. walter goldschmidt on March 2, 2009 5:14 pm

    Thanks for your comments. I have never understood the magical aura that sems to surround neoteny. Of course we have to remain receptiveto new knowledge longerthan other beings for we have a lot more to learn. What;s so interesting in that?

  4. One Year : Neoteny, sexual selection, cause of autism, human evolution, social transformation, left organizing and internet activism - how they all connect on April 3, 2009 7:35 am

    […] Neoteny, Affection and Dependency An example of what feels like the connection between psychological insight and theory insight. […]

  5. Eddie on July 19, 2016 8:46 pm

    Hahahaha OMG it is a long book. I can barely get through 10 nursery rhymes with the toddler before I find myself speeding through it and getting it over with. Great ilsiatrstuonl!

  6. on September 10, 2016 8:10 pm

    Wow, great looking cake. Lucky birthday boy, I hope he had a lovely day. You do look rather fetching in your pinnie and horns. I think you have your priorities pretty straight.

  7. http://www./ on October 22, 2016 5:49 pm

    NadiaElle se fait du souci pour des questions d’hygiène!C’est bienExcepté, elle ne se fait aucun souci pour un fléau qui cause des ravages en Syrie.Celui de la BARBARIE du dictateur.Rarement un dictateur n’a montré autant de HAINE envers le peuple qu’il devrait protéger.

  8. calculadora credito hipotecario banco nacion on October 25, 2016 3:21 pm

    Is that really all there is to it because that’d be flabbergasting.

  9. cetelem prestamos sin aval on October 25, 2016 4:00 pm

    8e83ManouG. dit :c17eAshley, désolée mais ton attaque est facile et gratuite, je me dois de relever le niveau:*hum hum < — échauffement de la voix*Shalima, poil aux doigts !PS: ben quoi faut bien lui prévoir de la lecture pour son retour, elle aura certainement fini Harry Potpot 7 et aura besoin de nous pour se mettre qqchose sous la dentc3b

  10. http://www./ on November 4, 2016 5:43 pm

    The sound is just fine on this video. I had no issues. I also turned off the t.v. sound, and no other noises in the house. I would like to know how to start my tunisian crochet project. Does it start the same as any other regular?

  11. http://www./ on November 13, 2016 11:46 am

    Right, an excess would favor large tanbeta and low mA within the MSSM. As for what's the next big thing, that's an interesting question. It seems that Bd-to-mu-mu is not too far away, so I guess LHCb could pinpoint it when more luminosity is collected after the upgrade. But I don't know if, apart from that, there's another clean flavor observable at the LHC with a large sensitivity to BSM, maybe someone who knows will comment… I know nothing about the tau decays.

  12. http://www./ on November 24, 2016 10:14 pm

    Please extend this to Mr. Robert Baillio, Sir this is why you must run for Mayor at least or Sherrif in a Parish (see a real Yankee did not call it a county)of your residence, in order to use your power in government to stop this abuse by government in and around where you reside. You must run for election to ensure it is laws of men over tyranny by government.Mayor Glover is wrong headed in this approach and careless in his adherance to the respect for those he was elected to serve. Good luck!

  13. gute wohngebäudeversicherung on February 2, 2017 9:55 am

    Det er jo ikke rart at så mange følger deg, når du er så utrolig flink!! :)Jeg jobber faktisk med å lage min egen julepynt! Perlehjerter er superfint og veldig enkelt! :)Kos deg videre på hyttetur! :)

  14. fifa 16 coin generator free on February 24, 2017 1:19 pm

    Cleveland is my hometown – not the big city, but a small town that had 25,000 people when I was growing up. It was special because I could ride my bicycle anywhere, had plenty of kids to play with in the neighborhood, and enjoyed learning arts and crafts.

Name (required)

Email (required)


Share your wisdom