The biological concept of a balanced polymorphism applies to society exhibiting a seamless gradation of individual types with an emphasis on heterozygote advantage.  Neuropsychologist Marian Annett reframed being left-handed as being random-handed and then observed a seamless arc of handedness from extreme left-handers at one end to the extreme right-handed at the other.  The left-handed had no gene for being left-handed.  They had no gene for being handed at all.  Annett hypothesized that over the course of our evolution, the gene for right-handedness emerged, which resulted in facility for speech.  Still, Annett hypothesized that the older genotype, the random-handed, retained importance.

Most people in a society are neither extreme left nor right.  Many people display a heterozygote advantage by exhibiting features of both random-handed and right-handed dispositions.  Still, as a society transforms, it drifts in the directions staked out at the extremes.  It is often those members of a society living at the poles that manifest the diseases, disorders and conditions that suggest the difficulties of living at the boundaries.  In addition, many of the most talented in a society spring from the left, the random-handed pole, the older genotype.  There are advantages to having a brain not wired for speech, a brain without the right hemisphere dramatically diminished in size with a smaller corpus callosum.

An evolutionary dynamic, a society-transforming dynamic, drives our species and our societies as they transform.  The process revolves around the modulation of testosterone and estrogen levels, which modify rates of maturation, sexually selected aesthetics and a compulsion to connect.  Testosterone regulates maturation rates, prolonging and accelerating maturation largely by raising and lowering a mother’s uterine testosterone levels.  Estrogen regulates testosterone by providing a compulsion to evaluate through sexual selection, while estrogen also engenders connection by engaging in attraction.  Annett’s balanced polymorphism noting handedness and cerebral lateralization is noting testosterone’s influence on maturation.  Heterochronic theory outlines the processes of neoteny (prolonging infant ancestor stages into the adult stages of descendants) and the processes of acceleration (withdrawing adult ancestor stages into the infant stages of descendants), which are driven by the modulation of testosterone.

Social structure is the skeletal center of a society.  Observing social structure, we observe the particular balanced polymorphism of a society.  Social structure is constructed of the testosterone/estrogen prototypes.  Those with a heterozygote advantage exhibit features that are a moderation of the extremes.

In the explanation below, t = low testosterone, T = high testosterone, e = low estrogen, E = high estrogen.

Female te mates with Male TE        Conventional Patrifocal
Female tE mates with Male Te        Warrior Patrifocal
Female Te mates with Male tE        Contemporary Matrifocal
Female TE mates with Male te         Classic Matrifocal


Female te mates with Male TE means low-testosterone and estrogen females, high-testosterone and estrogen male.

Female tE mates with Male Te translates into a low-testosterone, high-estrogen female being with a high-testosterone, low-estrogen male.

Female Te mates with Male tE means high-testosterone, low-estrogen female joining with a low-testosterone, high-estrogen male.

Female TE mates with Male te exhibits a high-testosterone and estrogen female marrying a low-testosterone and estrogen male.

These are the outliers.  The heterozygote advantage suggests that most people are in middle zones, and they are not exhibiting particularly high or low levels of either hormone, though there are periods in an individual’s life when he or she flirts with the extremes.  Still, we are hypothesizing that societies will tend to lean powerfully in a matrifocal or patrifocal direction, evidencing populations with tendencies to fall in two of the four quadrants.  Societies today will exhibit examples of all four quadrants.

At this point in time, I am estimating we evolved in small bands exhibiting Warrior Patrifocal and Classic Matrifocal features.  With the emergence of Asian agricultural societies, Conventional Patrifocal societies engaged.  In the last several hundred years, we’re seeing the appearance of Contemporary Matrifocal.  Societal balanced polymorphisms are moderating to accommodate changing environments.

The mother’s testosterone levels always propel the two sexes in opposite directions (maturational delayed vs. maturational accelerated).  A high-testosterone mother births high-testosterone daughters and low-testosterone sons.  The opposite is also true.  Low-testosterone mothers create low-testosterone daughters and high-testosterone sons.  The mother’s womb is the furnace where social structure is enabled, because complementary opposites are the necessary result of her productions.

I am hypothesizing that the mother’s estrogen levels fashion her children’s exhibition of estrogen in a similar way, though there are no studies that have been conducted that refute or support this theory.  Hypothesizing this theory to be true, we see that the paradigm complements the established testosterone dynamic, outlining how human biological evolution and social transformation are an identical, single, seamless process.

Domineering, caring, discriminating men choose cooperative women (Female te/Male TE).

Domineering men choose cooperative, caring, discriminating women (Female tE/Male Te).

Commanding women choose creative, cooperative, caring, discriminating men (Female Te/Male tE).

Commanding, caring, discriminating women choose creative, cooperative, aloof men (Female TE/Male te).

While testosterone levels inform maturation rates and directions, estrogen levels compel evaluation and expressions of connection.  Placing high estrogen levels with males compels males to focus on females exhibiting features of the young while exercising discrimination on who is chosen.  Note, both patrifocal and matrifocal societies can exhibit high E males, but the results can be radically different, as in patrifocal Asian and matrifocal Scandinavian societies.

These are the four-pole pairings from which a human balanced polymorphism is created.  Eight kinds of individuals are involved.  Again, most of us feature a combination of these prototypes–our testosterone and estrogen levels are not at the extremes–but understanding the human template allows us insight into how societies transform and our species evolves (transformation occurring at the extremes) and provides understanding of particular difficulties that plague society, such as the diseases and conditions that congregate around the social structure hormonal outliers.

Understanding handedness and its connection to testosterone and estrogen provides insight into the origins of societies and the unique way that humans have evolved.


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