Should

February 28, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Society, Unconscious

Exploring ideas in evolution, traveling with my consciousness instrument up and down the scales of biology, society, ontogeny and biography, concepts familiar to one level often evoke interesting, complementing melodies in another.

I was recently asked by an editor about a piece that he was using if I was saying that charismatic leaders will be unnecessary, or if I was saying such leaders should be removed.  The editor wasn’t clear by the way I wrote it.  I was confused by the question.  Why would someone suggest that I believed something “should” be different?  I experience myself as describing what I see and hear and the likely evolutionary repercussions.  Then I realized that people often evaluate the future based upon what scenario they prefer, what “should” be true.  I can see how the two can be confused.  My predictions must feel like expressions of ideals to some people, manifestations of a “should.”  To me, when I make predictions, I’m following implications of established patterns.

Having spent over 30 years of my life in psychotherapy, usually group therapy, and having received some training in psychotherapeutic interventions in my 20s (NLP, hypnotherapy, child clinical work), my world view has been deeply influenced by …

Activism as Art

February 27, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Activism, Art, Society

My experience of art is often the way I experience activism.  My goal is to engage and then let myself be guided.  This engenders trust of my unconscious and of the times.

In art it is often the case that I am the observer of what emerges from my fingers.  Theory formation, for me, is art.  I expose myself to information, often feeling led to read the books that I absorb in the same way that I feel led to play with or explore various idea avenues.  When I’m scooping up ideas and information, the concepts realign to reappear as art, in this case, a story or theory.

I was a watercolor artist when I was in my 20s, a comic artist when I was in my late 30s and 40s.  When I was involved with watercolors, I was usually inclined to express internal feelings characterized by distress, shame, frustration, remorse, yearning and feeling alone.  Performing comic strips and panels, I trended toward bitterness, disappointment, frustration, annoyance and anger.

When writing, I feel drawn toward melancholy, reverence, respect, delight, disappointment and awe.  I’m feeling more rounded in my expressions using words.  And, I more often feel the role of the …

Old Meets New

February 26, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Activism, Society, Web

Last December, workers from the Republic Windows and Doors factory on Chicago’s West Side staged a factory takeover when denied over one million dollars in benefits when the factory closed its doors.  This was the first union factory takeover in over fifty years, the beginning of an imminent reformation of American unions, an old song rearranged.

This shutdown was preceded in November by the proliferation of spontaneous Facebook demonstrations across the country.  The gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender/transsexual (GLBT) community and sympathetic activists protested the passage of Proposition 8 in California by taking to the streets.  Crowds were created with online social networking tools, mostly Facebook.

The old Left and new Left are finding that old and new tactics are both appropriate in the current deteriorating economic environment.  The Obama campaign guided 14 million people on the use of online tools.  Many of these people are feeling empowered.  Many others, like the unions, GLBT communities and countless other communities, are feeling angry.

Collapsing economy, meet new tech.

Over the next few months, observe the oldest community in the Left, the unions, learning to use the newest tactic, online and cell phone technology social networking intervention.  At first, unions will view …

The Stewardship Economy

February 25, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Activism, Society

The Obama Administration seems to have a feel for part of what our society and our economy has to achieve when it seeks to fund a transition to a “Green” economy.  Decentralizing the electrical grid by creating a distribution infrastructure that encourages solar and wind offers economic health without greenhouse gas production.  Still, the Obama Administration is not exactly displaying a lack of imagination but is exhibiting a failure to understand that the economic crash is signaling the end of the consumer economy.

Three generations of Americans have grown used to this giddy consumer amphetamine high accompanied by a reverence for products and the institutions that bring us all these choices.  Imagining an economy without the constant churn of natural resource conversion into disposable commodities, at this point, is a challenge.  Engaging imagination in this direction would be a useful challenge for the new administration.

My website design and development firm serves over 400 businesses.  One of those clients is down the street and around the corner.  Monica sells used children’s clothing and toys.  This Christmas she saw her business boom.

Monica told me the story of one of her customers giving the younger of her two daughters a used …

Consider that the American and world economy are beginning to work their way into a depression.  This is not too farfetched considering that in the blogs and mainstream media, the 1930s are becoming a common theme.  It is becoming conventional wisdom that we’re headed for depression.  Just as dust bowl winds destroyed our farmlands, this hurricane of financial abuse is deconstructing the modern economy.  It is not unreasonable to expect that the federal government cannot manufacture jobs quickly enough to breathe life into a dying consumer economy gasping for breath.

It’s time for the American Left to start exercising some imagination.

Let’s assume that eighteen months from now it will have become clear that Federal interventions displayed only moderate success.  Big box and specialty chains will be closing doors.  Flea markets and street vendors will spring up like mushrooms around an old tree trunk as the abandoned old structures house numerous spontaneous eruptions of minicommerce.  Deep resentments will emerge, focusing on those perceived as wealthy.  Demands will be made that resources be redistributed that allow the disadvantaged to have access to health, education and a job.

The American Left has been split for years between those that concentrate on heinous …

“Before Agassiz, recapitulation had been defined as a correspondence between two series: embryonic stages and adults of living species.  Agassiz introduced a third series: the geologic record of fossils.  An embryo repeats both a graded series of living, lower forms and the history of its type as recorded by fossils.  There is a “threefold parallelism” of embryonic growth, structural gradation, and geologic succession.  ‘It may therefore be considered as a general fact, very likely to be more fully illustrated as investigations cover a wider ground, that the phases of development of all living animals correspond to the order to succession of their extinct representatives in past geological times.  As far as this goes, the oldest representatives of every class may then be considered as embryonic types of their respective orders of familiar among the living.’ ” (1857, 1962 ed., p. 114)  (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontogeny and Phylogeny.  Cambridge: Belknap Press, pp. 65-66)

When the sciences were forming in the nineteenth century and earthly twentieth century, strong personalities explored fertile new ground, and they planted virgin orchards to have followers harvest many of the fruits.  Society would draw boundaries regarding what was acceptable to pursue, and sciences would evolve in …

“The classical argument for recapitulation involves a threefold parallelism of paleontology, comparative anatomy, and ontogeny.  Morphologists occasionally added a fourth source of evidence — teratology and the phyletic explanation of abnormalities as developmental arrests (Chapter 3).  This fourth criterion — the abnormal individual as an arrested juvenile — forms an important part of the usage made by other disciplines of the biogenetic law.  We have seen how Lombroso invoked it in his theory of criminality.  We will encounter it again in Freud’s theory of neurosis.” (Gould, S.J. (1977) Ontogeny and Phylogeny.  Cambridge: Belknap Press, p. 125)

The phrase “American exceptionalism” seems to be emerging more frequently in the sentences that the Right is experimenting with to communicate what it believes it still has to offer to Americans.  Just as many Americans believe the U.S. is special, they have also believed that this country makes it possible for any individual to achieve anything he or she sets out to do.  Independence, freedom and liberty are frequently intoned as representing this point of view.

This frame of reference, the belief that we are special because we are different, has hobbled the ability of the left end of the American spectrum …

First, some excerpts….

“But why does recapitulation occur?  Since he rejected the single developmental tendency of Naturphilosophie, Agassiz could not propose the easy explanation of his teacher Oken.  As Darwin’s most implacable opponent, he could seek no aid from transmutationists’ doctrines.  To Agassiz, the threefold parallelism reflected the unity of God’s plan for His creation.  It was also a fact of observation.  What more need a Cuvierian empiricist say? “The leading thought which runs through the succession of all organized being in past ages is manifested again in new combinations, in the phases of the development of the living representatives of those different types.  It exhibits everywhere the working of the same creative Mind, through all times, and upon the whole surface of the globe” (1857, p. 115) Agassiz invoked his God specifically to forestall any evolutionary reading of recapitulation: ….  Yet, Agassiz’s view contained an argument that no evolutionist could resist interpreting.  If the fossil record is only a temporal display of the same divine plan that animals reflect in their own ontogeny, then the geologic component of Agassiz’s threefold parallelism merely extends the scope of recapitulation and the generality of benevolent design.  But if fossils record an actual …

Yesterday, I met my younger sister Terry and her family in the Walker Brothers in Highland Park.  Our dad was treating us.  It was 8:30 a.m. on a Saturday.  I am the oldest of three kids, the only one still close to home.  We were eating breakfast a few blocks from one of the houses Terry and I grew up in.

Talking with my niece Renee, she told me about her choosing the economics of institutions as her undergraduate major, and her likely specialization as Ph.D.  It combines history, political science and economics and offers a wealth of interesting areas to explore.  Renee was excited.

I asked if there were evolutionary aspects to the discipline, if a paradigm of a succession of institutions in different societies over time was examined.  Renee was not aware that this was the case.  From her introduction to the study, it looked like the economics of institutions concentrated on snapshots of a place and time.

Riane Eisler’s The Real Wealth of Nations explores society’s institutions from a matristic point of view.  It’s not exactly an evolutionary model, but Eisler reveals the recent emergence of “partnership” society horizontal and egalitarian economic and government institutions.  From what …

“In a case-control study of testis cancer 259 cases with testicular cancer, 238 controls treated at radiotherapy centres and 251 non-radiotherapy hospital in-patient controls were interviewed about some possible prenatal and familial risk factors for the tumor.  For firstborn men, the risk of testis cancer increased significantly according to maternal age at the subject’s birth, and this effect was most marked for seminoma.  The association with maternal age was not apparent for cases other than firstborn.  The risk of testis cancer was also significantly raised for men from small sibships and of early birth order.  These results accord with the theory that raised maternal levels of available oestrogen during the early part of pregnancy are aetiological for testicular cancer in the son, although other explanations are possible; there is evidence that seminoma risk may particularly be affected.” (Swerdlow, A. J., Huttly, S. R., Smith, P. G. (1987) Prenatal and familial associations of testicular cancer.  Br J Cancer 55 (5):571)

A number of studies have emerged that connect birth order to enhanced likelihood of contracting specific diseases or conditions and increased hormone levels associated with those conditions.

A connection not made is that hormones, specifically testosterone, particularly the mother’s testosterone levels …

Deep Sharing

February 18, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Biology, Ontogeny

“Lastly it is clear that stress reduces testosterone levels in men (Kreuz et al., 1972).  And Leedy and Wilson (1985) concluded that male hormone levels may be affected by the stressors of routine military flight.  So the reportedly low sex ratios of children born to men in stressful occupations e.g. aircraft pilots (Goerres and Gerbert, 1976; Synder, 1961) and abalone divers (Lyster, 1982) may have hormonal—perhaps androgenic—determinates.” (James, W. H. (1986) Hormonal control of the sex ratio.  Journal of Theoretical Biology 118: 435)

When females are stressed, their testosterone levels go up (Geschwind and Galaburda, 1987).  When males are stressed, their testosterone levels go down.  High fat diets raise female testosterone levels and lower the testosterone levels of males.

What other environmental variables influence men and women in opposite directions?

I am hypothesizing that a mother’s testosterone and estrogen levels propel her sons and daughters in opposite yet complementary maturation rate and evolutionary directions.  Not incidentally, several environmental variables also push the hormones of males and females in opposite directions.  If this pattern continues to unfold, two things are suggested.

First, though there have been no studies conducted that seek to observe whether changes in a male’s hormone levels over …

The Emerging Commons

February 17, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Society

The new paradigm is becoming easier to see.  I’m observing an emerging of the 60s without the narcissism and the drugs.  The commons is no longer a foreign concept.  I’m feeling excited and relieved.  And, a little scared.

I’m an unapologetic hippie disguised as a business man/activist/theorist/artist.  I feel like I felt the first time ‘round when the world felt like it was in the process of being reborn.  It wasn’t the war ending or the drugs.  It was the certainty many of us felt that society was transforming, heading powerfully in the direction of the Left, in the direction of female-centric egalitarianism, reverence for nature, sensitivity and responsibility toward poverty, minorities and the Third World.  I’m only partly talking about the election of Obama.

I did not see Reagan coming.  Large portions of our population felt threatened by both the minorities within our borders and hostile governments overseas.  Those folks voted to protect what they have and focus on what corporations could commercially provide.  It was a potent, cogent combination.  The zeitgeist had most of us believing that the purpose of government was to encourage those that are good at making money to make more money while protecting our …

Cool Idea

February 16, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Art, Auto-Biography, Play

I’m starting to get an idea for a book.  It began when I noticed how many of the metaphors I use are related to toys and play.  Noting that toys seem to often elegantly portray biological processes, I’m considering using a different toy to guide a different chapter.  The book would be called something like “The Play of Evolution.” Maybe, “Playing With Evolution.”  The subtitle might be “Beyond the Abyss of Reductionism,” with the Beyond a Shadow of a Doubt comic as the cover of the book.

The chapter breakdown would emphasize the several human evolution themes of this website:  biology, society, transition from biology to society, neuropsychology, anthropology, evolutionary biology, psychology, autism, spirituality/language/unconscious, story and myth, society and teleology, society and political activism, medical implications of the theory, creative process and contemporary social shifts.  There is lots of overlap between sections.

My mother worked in a toy shop during Christmastime when was I was growing up.  I was employed there for a year when I was 16.  My wife Marcia owned and ran a toy store for 22 years.  That is where I met her.  Toys have perhaps fascinated me more as an adult than when I was a …

Just had a rather odd thought that may or may not be relevant to the principles I’ve been exploring.  I’m wondering if estrogen levels in procreating males and females influence the number of children in families.

There are r and K strategies for guiding progeny to maturity.  In an r strategy, you have as many children as possible to compensate for an inability to control an environment often hostile to progeny achieving maturity.  In the K strategy, parents conclude that by paying close attention to fewer progeny, adulthood for the offspring can be more predictably achieved.

A high-estrogen male would likely be more inclined to pay close attention to his children than a low-estrogen male.  That attention would more likely translate into a K strategy whereby the child is ushered into adulthood with much attention.  Plummeting birth rates in Europe and developed countries might be directly related to changing male hormone levels, elevating estrogen.  Twentieth century high fat diets may be partly responsible for drops in birth rates.

High fat diets granted to emerging middle classes in developing countries may be leading to a diminution in population explosion as males become more solicitous of their children.

Studies with animal populations …

Seeking Words

February 14, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Myth/Story, Society, Unconscious

Being human, it’s difficult to imagine what we don’t have words for.

Benjamin Whorf proposed that language powerfully determined the reality that a society can perceive.  For example, some indigenous Americans communicate largely in the present tense.  In Hopi mythology, the future and the past converge in a mythological alternative present as if at the other end of a giant wheel or hoop.  Such an experience of reality could influence individuals and societies at a number of levels.

Our unconscious, our personal representatives of the infinite other side, provide us information based upon the stories we have made up about the world.  What fits our stories we can absorb.  What does not fit our stories we ignore.  The words we use to create our stories are stored with a myriad of associations.  Associations left outside our experience, outside our words, do not end up in our stories and are not available to makes sense of the world.

A society emphasizing a single tense may be wiser than one deeply sensitive to the increments of time, wiser because the information received is far often high quality, real time information.  Nevertheless, that wiser society may be vulnerable to the machinations of a …

The behaviors of individuals, the behaviors of societies and the observation of changes in those behaviors in different scales of time are divided up into different disciplines to be studied by different academicians in different journals and research communities.

There are scientists that don’t believe in “unitary” theories or perspectives because unitary theories seek to remove the barriers between scales and/or time frames.  I don’t think these academics experience the world through a seamless progression of information gradating from discipline to discipline.  They live on an archipelago of knowledge springing from an unexamined ocean.

Next door lives a teenager practicing guitar.  He practices his riffs repeatedly, seeking a familiarity that prompts him to move on.  I am practicing merging ideas from different disciplines, encouraging my fingers to find various pathways between concepts that have not had much opportunity to mate.  Next door, the boy is becoming deft and drawing melodies from his instrument.  I am seeking ways to easily jump between biological scales and time frames.

In between the academic archipelagos that seek to sort and store the information about our world, I am building Tinker Toy bridges, hubs and nods that suggest a connection between these islands of understanding.  …

Left Imagination

February 12, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Activism, Society

At a fairly fast clip, the American Left is splitting into pieces, in no small part due to a failure of imagination.

Two splits are happening at once.  First, to whatever degree African-Americans were integrated into the Left community, they have gone.  With the election of Obama, the Democratic Party has moved left in its willingness to empower minorities of color.  Having deeply satisfied a large constituency, that constituency is not at this time willing to push Obama on social justice issues, trusting that he will not disappoint.  There was always a disconnect between social justice and foreign policy in the Black community.  African-Americans for the most part did not heavily protest the Iraq War.  The disconnect has grown wider as they see evidence that they’re being heard.

A second split has increased the chasm between the hard Left and the center Left.  There has always been the disagreement between strategy, tactics and perspective.  The disagreement is growing wider.  The far Left focuses more on U.S. behavior overseas, where differences between the parties have been relatively small.  The center Left places more attention on domestic issues, where Democrats show growing differences from Republicans, with increasing large differences such as positions …

Estimating that there are the four prototypical couples…

Female te/Male TE
Female tE/Male Te
Female Te/Male tE
Female TE/Male te

…we might conclude that dating services would concentrate on matching up people with their complementary opposites.  Still, many people pair off with a partner that is not complementary in the ways that I am describing in this thesis.  For example, an artist couple, both high estrogen, might marry.

Consider that there may be a difference in procreation percentages among couples that are not complementary opposites as predicted by the theory vs. those that are.  For example, place two high-testosterone people together and it may become less likely they will have children.

The same would go for our artist couple.  Two high-estrogen mates, according to this thesis, would have children a smaller percentage of the time than if their estrogen levels were complementary opposites.

Second marriages that don’t have children might be marriages where the dynamic of complementary opposites are less engaged.  People might be more compelled to relax with someone that is similar rather than battle with their opposite.

If this hypothesis holds water, I’m not sure what the repercussions are.  If the coupling instinct compels us to bond and …

It seems for now that this Theory of Waves, broken down or reduced to eight prototype human beings, offers some purchase to grip the theory that has been difficult up to now. Time will tell whether this is really the case. I just know that the three disciplines, Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology and Neuropsychology, and their doorway concepts of social structure, heterochrony and balanced polymorphism, haven’t felt particularly friendly to most folks introduced to these concepts.

To review, there are eight prototype human beings.

Female
High testosterone, high estrogen (F TE)
High testosterone, low estrogen (F Te)
Low testosterone, high estrogen (F tE)
Low testosterone, low estrogen (F te)

Male
High testosterone, high estrogen (M TE)
High testosterone, low estrogen (M Te)
Low testosterone, high estrogen (M tE)
Low testosterone, low estrogen (M te)

There are natural complementary pairings. Opposite sexes are drawn to their opposite hormonal complements, not just to the opposite sex.

Female te/Male TE
Female tE/Male Te
Female Te/Male tE
Female TE/Male te

The complements naturally ally themselves into social structures, patrifocal and matrifocal, with two variations within each.

F te/M TE Conventional Patrifocal
F tE/M Te Warrior Patrifocal
F Te/M tE Contemporary Matrifocal
F TE/M te Classic …

Dream and Waking

February 9, 2009 | Leave a Comment

Category: Unconscious

“Primary process is characterized (e.g., by Fenichel) as lacking negatives, lacking tense, lacking in any identification of linguistic mood (i.e., no identification of indicative, subjunctive, optative, etc.) and metaphoric.  These characterizations are based upon the experience of psychoanalysts, who must interpret dreams and the patterns of free associations.”  (Bateson, G. (1972) Steps To An Ecology of Mind.  Balantine: New York.  p. 139)

Dream and the unconscious can only communicate in the present, in the place you are in, with no “no” or negatives.  While dreaming, what you imagine to be true becomes true.  You can’t imagine being somewhere or sometime else without being in that somewhere or sometime.  You can’t imagine something not to be true, because you have to imagine that thing to not imagine it, and then that thing appears.

This is the world of our dream, our infancy, our unconscious, and the consciousness of nonhumans on the earth.  Humans when awake are able to be split, experience themselves as two, and engage in the manipulation of time and space.  We are able to imagine something to be true while observing the creations of our imaginations.

Still, we are heavily impacted by what goes on in our …

It was noted by Marrion in 1986 that Kwakiutl (Annett, 2002) display high incidence of left-handedness. Riane Eisler has written of the partnership society qualities of Scandinavian societies. There are studies that suggest increased percentages of anomalous dominance among Scandinavian populations. In 1998, I wrote that equatorial populations migrating to Northern climates will be subject to higher degrees of autism and conditions characterized by maturational delay. Minnesota Somali children seem to be fitting this prediction.

In other pieces, I’ve discussed the hypothesis, first considered by Geschwind and Galaburda, that light mediated by the pineal gland could be influencing testosterone levels, thus engendering conditions characterized by maturational delay. They did not make the connection to heterochronic theory, but it seems fairly reasonable to mate migration with left-handedness. Yet, if Kwakiutl evidence maturational delay having lived in or near the Arctic Circle for thousands of years, then the effects of light on the pineal may show signs of creating maturational-delayed populations at the extreme Northern and Southern ends across the earth, without recent migration.

Are there signs of increased left-handedness in Southern Australia, Southern Africa and the Southern tip of South America? What about the Lapplanders? Consider Latino and African-American populations in …

Talking with my son Elia last night (Elia is an anthropology major at Loyola), I brought up a conundrum that I’ve been playing with for a few years.  It has to do with the origin of language, metaphor and god.

I presuppose or assume that consciousness existed before humans evolved and probably always existed.  I don’t go so far as to define consciousness, though Gregory Bateson’s interpretation of Freud’s primary process has been a useful foundation for me.  According to that definition (extrapolating primary consciousness to god), god consciousness is not unlike that of an infant:  only one time, one place and no negatives such as “no.”  This consciousness is much like that experienced during dream.  In dream, you cannot imagine something without it becoming true.  You cannot be two places at once.  You cannot think of the future without being in the future.  You cannot read, because if the words acquire meaning, you travel to what the words describe.

So, I assume consciousness exists and always existed, existing up to, and including, the appearance of human beings.

I characterize human consciousness as split consciousness.  I hypothesize that when the right hemisphere began to reduce in size along with the …

Ten years ago, I was exploring the possible origin of human culture in tribal societies driven by rhythmic dance and music. Tribal societies are on rare occasions characterized by paternal anonymity, or children who are unaware of the identity of their biological father. Observing that human brain size began to diminish about 25,000 years ago, I hypothesized that this reflected an emerging patrifocal emphasis on speech instead of gesture and a movement away from a selection for big-brained males. If this was the case, I suspected that there might be remnants of the old matrifocal paradigm that still exist within contemporary society. In the neurological literature, I sought humans with unusually large brains, difficulty with language, but who were also ambidextrous or left-handed. I came to find that autistic individuals commonly display these features; in addition, I discovered that individuals with autism are often obsessed with pattern replication and have perfect pitch (Brenton, Devries, Barton, Minnich & Sokol, 2008).

It appeared that hidden beneath the just-so story was a theory, which, if brought to light, could help make useful predictions and illuminate unrecognized relationships. From the beginning, the theory drew information from three different disciplines: anthropology, evolutionary biology and neuropsychology; …

Imagine social structure, matrifocal and patrifocal, as representing left and right or past and future in a distribution of humans inclined toward egalitarian or hierarchical organization, our matrifocal past leading to our patrifocal present.

Consider human males exhibiting neoteny or maturational delay contrasted to females showing acceleration or maturational acceleration as pairing together neotenous, cooperative males with maturational-accelerated, commanding females.  We would hypothesize this to be a matrifocal society.  Now, consider the reverse, with neotenous females mating with accelerated, dominating males in a patrifocal society.  Heterochrony is the evolutionary biological principle that explores the influence of neoteny and acceleration on the evolution of species.

Last, note in neuropsychological studies of handedness and cerebral dominance in humans that there is a seamless arc of handedness tendencies beginning at the left end with strong left-handers bridging over to the right side with strong right-handers.  Most people are toward the center, many being right-handed but displaying some left-handed aspects.

An overlapping of all three of these academic traditions suggests a single process manifesting in three seemingly different areas.  Anthropological social structure exploring matristic vs. patristic frames, evolutionary biological neoteny/acceleration studies following the influence of changing maturation rates on physiologies and neurologies over time …

“The diversity of human skills and the improbability that any one individual could be good at everything makes it reasonable to suggest that different genotypes, for different patterns of CD [cerebral dominance], are associated with various strengths and weaknesses that complement and balance one another in the population as a whole.” (Annett, Handedness and Brain Asymmetry, p. 186)

Thirty years ago in Guatemala, a student of Marian Annett, W. J. Demarest, evaluated Mayan and Ladino (mixed Spanish and Indian) children to see if their handedness distributions were similar to Annett’s UK studies.  Annett hypothesized that the way that the British are cerebrally organized would carry over to humans across the planet based upon the fairly consistent manifestations of left-handedness that are observed.

The conclusion of the Guatemalan study suggested that the Mayan children did not exhibit the same distribution of handedness, implying a different distribution of cerebral lateralization.  The Mayan children drifted further to the left, emphasizing that they might be less lateralized for language.  The thesis of this website would argue that the Mayans exhibit a more matrifocal social structure than Western societies, the left drift in handedness appraisals suggesting an older genotype.

In another study, indigenous Americans …